Fire Management Considerations
Some managers believe that prescribed fire may be a useful silvicultural tool for managing red spruce on some sites. On such sites, the exposed mineral soil must have plentiful moisture, soil temperatures must be moderate, and competition must be minimal . In general, however, fires in red spruce habitat are of little silvicultural value . Slash burning following logging kills advance reproduction and creates rank postfire vegetation that delays any new seedling establishment . The fire management plan for Acadia National Park, Maine, dictates the suppression of natural fires. Prescribed fires may be used on occasion to reduce fuels . Patterson and others  estimated fuel loadings for a number of stands in Acadia National Park that contained red spruce. They concluded that fire exclusion was probably resulting in increased fuel loads. Alexander  compiled slash fuel indices for red spruce and compared actual fire spread, intensity, and slash and organic layer depletions with those predicted by the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System. Freeman and others  developed equations to determine average crown weight per tree as a function of tree height and diameter for use in a method to predict slash weight after logging red spruce.
- 24. Freeman, Duane R.; Loomis, Robert M.; Roussopoulos, Peter J. 1982. Handbook for predicting slash weight in the Northeast. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-75. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 23 p. 
- 39. Korstian, Clarence F. 1937. Perpetuation of spruce on cut-over and burned lands in the higher Southern Appalachian Mountains. Ecological Monographs. 7(1): 125-167. 
- 4. Alexander, Martin E. 1984. Prescribed fire behavior and impact in an eastern spruce-fir slash fuel complex. Canadian Forestry Service Research Notes. 4(1): 3-10. 
- 60. Patterson, William A., III; Saunders, Karen E.; Horton, L. J. 1983. Fire regimes of the coastal Maine forests of Acadia National Park. OSS 83-3. Boston, MA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, Office of Scientific Studies. 259 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Broomall, PA. 
- 61. Patterson, William A., III; Saunders, Karen E.; Horton, L. J.; Foley, Mary K. 1985. Fire management options for coastal New England forest: Acadia National Park and Cape Cod National Seashore. In: Lotan, James E.; Kilgore, Bruce M.; Fischer, William C.; Mutch, Robert W., technical coordinators. Proceedings--symposium and workshop on wilderness fire;1983 November 15-18; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-182. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 360-365. 
- 65. Randall, Arthur G. 1976. Natural regeneration in two spruce-fir clearcuts in eastern Maine. Research Life Sciences. [University of Maine]
- 87. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p.