The manakin species are very interesting in their family life. Long-tailed Manakin males form a long-term partnership duo or trio. Together they sing in synchrony and, for any female who is attracted by their singing, perform a complex coordinated courtship dance. If she mates, only the alpha male inseminates her. Among many displaying male partnerships in a locality (a dispersed lek), only one or a very few males may account for the vast majority of matings in a given breeding season. As in other lekking species, the female then builds the nest and raises the young without involvement by males.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Chiroxiphia linearis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106004550. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Nadkarni, Nalini. Birds of Monteverde: "A case of male cooperation"