Iris oratoria, known by the common name Mediterranean Mantis or (less frequently) Iris Mantis, is a widespread species of praying mantis native to Europe. It is found as an introduced species in the Middle East, Western Asia and the United States. 
I. oratoria is very pale when young but matures to grass green, and grows to about 6.5 cm long. The species may be distinguished from Mantis religiosa and other mantids with which it shares a range and general size and shape by the red-orange spot on the ventral side on the fourth (second to last) abdominal segment; also, its cerci are shorter than those of M. religiosa. The species is distinctive in having two large startling violet-brown eyespots on its hind wings which are revealed when its wings are unfolded. The adult is slenderer than Tenodera aridifolia sinensis, more like Mantis religiosa in shape. Females have wings shorter than the abdomen.
Two novel I. oratoria survival strategies may have contributed to the expansion of this species beyond its original range, and its success in areas formerly occupied by other mantids such as Stagmomantis carolina. Firstly, this species is capable of parthenogenic reproduction when males are scarce. Secondly, additional I. oratoria nymphs may emerge from their oothecae in the second season after the egg case is produced, i.e., when their siblings are already grown and are producing their own offspring.
The Mediterranean mantis is known for two distinctive behaviours, apart from the ambush hunting common to other mantids: cannibalism and deimatic or threat displays.
When the mantis is under attack, it sets in motion a complex series of actions which combine to form a startling deimatic display. The mantis turns to face the aggressor, rears up by arching its back, curls its abdomen upwards (dorsiflexion), raises and waves its forelimbs, raises its wings and so displays the large brightly coloured eyespots on the hindwings, and stridulates by scraping the edge of its hindwings against its tegmina, the leathery front wings.
- Crump, Marty. Headless Males Make Great Lovers & Other Unusual Natural Histories. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-12199-2.
- Prete, Frederick R (1999). The Praying Mantids. JHU Press.
- Sexual cannibalism, mate choice, and sperm competition in praying mantids
- California Department of Food and Agriculture
- Bugs in Cyberspace
- Israel Insect World
- Animal Junction
- D. Oliveira, Mantid Genera Key
- University of Southern California: The Mantis Project Stage 4 Is Observed Parthenogenesis Cryptic or Induced?
- "Range Expansion of an Introduced Mantid Iris oratoria and Niche Overlap with a Native Mantid Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea: Mantidae)" by Michael R. Maxwell and Ofer Eitan, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 91, Number 4, July 1998.
- Crump, 2005.[page needed]
- Prete, 1999. p 185.