Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific: Persian Gulf and East Africa to the west coast of the Americas. It was noted by Dawson (Ref. 5316) that there is a clinal increase in the number of total rings and dorsal rays for the 3 subspecies (Red Sea, D. e. abbreviatus and Eastern Pacific D. e. paulus; more study is needed (Ref. 86689).
- Dawson, C.E. 1985 Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
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