The Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) is a bird belonging to the swift family. It commonly nests in chimneys in eastern North America, and migrates in large flocks to northwestern South America for the winter.
Taxonomy and systematics
When he first described the Chimney Swift in 1758, Carl Linnaeus named it Hirundo pelagica, believing it to be a swallow. This misconception continued well into the 1800s, with ornithologists calling it "American Swallow" (e.g. Mark Catesby) or "Chimney Swallow" (e.g. John James Audubon). In 1825, James Francis Stephens moved this and other small, short-tailed New World swifts to the genus Chaetura, where it has since remained, although some authorities in the 1800s assigned it to a variety of now obsolete genera. It has no subspecies. The Chimney Swift's closest relative is the Vaux's Swift. Scientists believe that the two species evolved from a common ancestor that was forced to North America's southeastern and southwestern corners by glacial advances. Separated for centuries by vast ice sheets, the survivors evolved into two species which are still separated by a wide gap across the continent's midsection. It is also closely related to the Chapman's Swift; in the past, the three were sometimes treated as a single species.
The Chimney Swift's genus name, Chaetura, is a combination of two Greek words: chaite, which means "bristle" or "spine", and oura which means "tail". This is an apt description of the bird's tail, as the shafts of all ten tail feathers (rectrices) end in sharp, protruding points. The specific name pelagica is derived from the Greek word pelagikos, which means "of the sea". This is thought to be a reference to its nomadic lifestyle rather than to any reference to the sea, a theory strengthened by the later assignment of the specific name pelasgia (after the nomadic Pelasgi tribe of ancient Greece) to the same species by other ornithologists. Its common name refers to its preferred nesting site and its speedy flight.
This is a medium-sized swift, measuring from 12 to 15 cm (4.7 to 5.9 in) in length,[nb 1] with a wingspan of 27 to 30 cm (11 to 12 in) and a weight ranging from 17 to 30 g (0.60 to 1.1 oz). The sexes are identical in plumage, though males average slightly heavier than females. The adult's plumage is a dark sooty olive above and grayish brown below, with a slightly paler rump and uppertail covert feathers, and a significantly paler throat. Its upperparts are the most uniformly colored of all the Chaetura swifts, showing little contrast between back and rump. Its beak is black, as are its feet and legs. Its iris is dark brown.
The Chimney Swift's wings are slender, curved and long, extending as much as 1.5 in (3.8 cm) beyond the bird's tail when folded. Its wingtips are pointed, which helps to decrease air turbulence (and therefore drag) during flight. Its humerus (the bone in the inner part of the wing) is quite short, while the bones further out (more distally) along the wing are elongated, a combination which allows the bird to flap very quickly. In flight, it holds its wings stiffly, alternating between rapid, quivering flaps and longer glides. Its flight profile is widely described as a "cigar with wings"—a description first used by Roger Tory Peterson. Although the bird often appears to beat its wings asynchronously during flight, photographic and stroboscopic studies have shown that it beats them in unison. The illusion that it does otherwise is heightened by its very fast and highly erratic flight, with many rapid changes of direction.
The legs of the Chimney Swift, like those of all swifts, are very short. Its feet are small but strong, with very short toes that are tipped with sharp, curved claws. The toes are anisodactyl—three forward, one back—like those of most birds, but the Chimney Swift can swivel its back toe (its hallux) forward to help it get a better grip. Unlike the legs and feet of most birds, those of the Chimney Swift have no scales; instead, they are covered with smooth skin.
Its tail is short and square, measuring only 1.90–2.15 in (4.8–5.5 cm) in length. All ten of its tail feathers have shafts which extend as much as 0.5 in (1.3 cm) beyond the vanes, ending in sharp, stiff points. These help the bird to prop itself against vertical surfaces.
The Chimney Swift has large, deep set eyes. These are protected by small patches of coarse, black, bristly feathers, which are located in front of each eye. The swift can change the angle of these feathers, which may help to reduce glare. It is far-sighted and, like some birds of prey, has two fovea—small depressions in the retina where visual acuity is highest—in each eye. These help to make its vision especially acute. Like most vertebrates, it is able to focus both eyes at once; however, it is also able to focus a single eye independently.
Its bill is very small, with a culmen that measures a mere 5 mm (0.20 in) in length. However, its gape is huge, extending back below its eyes, and allowing the bird to open its mouth very widely. Unlike many insectivorous birds, it lacks rictal bristles at the base of the beak.
The Chimney Swift looks very much like the closely related Vaux's Swift, but is slightly larger, with relatively longer wings and tail, slower wingbeats and a greater tendency to soar. It tends to be darker on the breast and rump than the Vaux's Swift, though there is some overlap in plumage coloring. It can be as much as 30 percent heavier than the Vaux's Swift, and its wings, which are proportionately narrower, show a pronounced bulge in the inner secondaries. The Chimney Swift is smaller, paler and shorter tailed than the Black Swift. In Central America, it is most similar to the Chapman's Swift, but it is paler (matte olive rather than glossy black) and has a stronger contrast between its pale throat and the rest of its underparts than does the more uniformly colored Chapman's Swift.
Range and habitat
A widespread breeding visitor to much of the eastern half of the United States (and barely into the southern reaches of eastern Canada), the Chimney Swift migrates to South America for the winter. It is a rare summer visitor to the western U.S, and has been recorded as a vagrant in Anguilla, Barbados, Greenland, Jamaica, Portugal, United Kingdom and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It is found over open country, savanna, wooded slopes and humid forest.
The Chimney Swift's wintering grounds were only discovered in 1944, when bands from birds banded (ringed) in North America were recovered in Peru. An indigenous Peruvian had been wearing the bands as a necklace.
The Chimney Swift is a gregarious species, and is seldom seen alone. It generally hunts in groups of two or three, migrates in loose flocks of 6–20, and (once the breeding season is over) sleeps in huge communal roosts of hundreds or thousands of birds. Like all swifts, it is a superb aerialist, and only rarely seen at rest. It drinks on the wing, skimming the surface of the water with its beak. It also bathes on the wing, gliding above the surface of a body of water, briefly smacking its breast into the water, then flying off again, shaking its feathers as it goes. It is incapable of perching; instead, it clings to vertical surfaces. If it is disturbed while at rest, the Chimney Swift will clap its wings loudly once or twice against its body; it does this either in place, or while dropping down several feet to a lower location. This behavior can result in a loud "thundering" sound if large roosts of the birds are disturbed. The sound is thought to be the bird's way of scaring away potential predators.
Like all swifts, the Chimney Swift forages on the wing. Studies have shown that 95 percent of its food items are flying insects, including various species of flies, ants, wasps, bees, whiteflies, aphids, scale insects, stoneflies and mayflies. It also eats airborne spiders drifting on their threads. It is an important predator of pest species such as the red imported fire ant and the clover root curculio. Researchers estimate that a pair of adults provisioning a nest with three youngsters consume the weight equivalent of at least 5000–6000 housefly-sized insects per day.
During the breeding season, at least half of the Chimney Swift's forays occur within 0.5 km (0.31 mi) of its nest; however, it ranges up to 6 km (3.7 mi) away. While most of its food is seized following aerial pursuit, some is gleaned from the foliage of trees; the bird hovers near the ends of branches or drops through upper canopy levels. The Chimney Swift generally flies quite high, though it descends during cold or rainy weather. When feeding, it regularly occurs in small groups, and sometimes hunts with swallows, particularly Barn Swallows and Purple Martins; in mixed-species flocks, it is typically among the lower fliers. There is at least one record of a Chimney Swift attempting to steal a dragonfly from a Purple Martin, and it has been observed chasing other Purple Martins. In general, it is a diurnal feeder which remains active into early evening. However, there are records, particularly during migration periods, of Chimney Swifts feeding well after dark over brightly lit buildings.
The species shows two weight peaks each year: one at the start of the breeding season, and a higher one shortly before it begins its migration south in the autumn. Its lowest weights are typically recorded during the breeding season, when it also begins a complete molt of its plumage. The Chimney Swift's weight gain before migration is smaller than that of some passerines, suggesting that it must refuel en route at various stopover points.
The Chimney Swift is a monogamous breeder which normally mates for life, though a small percentage of birds change partners. Pairs perform display flights together, gliding with their wings upraised in a steep "V", and sometimes rocking from side to side. Breeding birds arrive as early as mid March in the southern U.S., and as late as mid-May in the Canadian provinces.
Before the arrival of European colonists into North America, the Chimney Swift nested in hollow trees; now, it uses human-built structures almost exclusively. While the occasional nest is still built in a hollow tree (or, exceptionally, in an abandoned woodpecker nest), most are now found in chimneys, with smaller numbers in airshafts, the dark corners of lightly used buildings, cisterns, or wells. The nest is a shallow bracket made of sticks, which the birds gather in flight, breaking them off trees. The sticks are glued together (and the nest to a vertical surface) with copious amounts of the bird's saliva.
Unlike some swift species, which mate in flight, Chimney Swifts mate while perched near their nest. They copulate daily, until the clutch is complete. The female typically lays 4–5 eggs, though clutch sizes range from 2 to 7. The eggs, which are long and elliptical in shape, are moderately glossy, smooth and white, and measure 20 mm × 13 mm (0.79 in × 0.51 in). Each weighs nearly 10 percent of the female's body weight. Incubated by both parents, the eggs hatch after 19 days. Baby Chimney Swifts are altricial—naked, blind and helpless when they hatch. Fledglings leave the nest after a month.
The average Chimney Swift's life span is 4.6 years, but one is known to have lived more than 14 years. It was originally banded as an adult, and was recaptured in another banding operation some 12.5 years later.
The Chimney Swift has a twittering call, consisting of a rapid series of hard, high-pitched chips. It sometimes gives single chips.
Conservation status and threats
In 2010, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature changed the Chimney Swift's status from "Least Concern" to "Near Threatened". Although its population is estimated at 15 million, it has declined fairly precipitously over most of its range.
Their population may have increased historically with the introduction of large chimneys as nesting locations. With suitable man-made habitat becoming less common, their numbers are declining in some areas. In Canada, they were listed as Threatened by COSEWIC for several years with a likely future listing as a Schedule 1 species of the Species at Risk Act.
After sudden temperature drops, the Chimney Swift sometimes hunts low over concrete roads (presumably following insect prey drawn to the warmer road), where collisions with vehicles become more likely.
The Chimney Swift carries a number of internal and external parasites. It is the type host for the nematode species Aproctella nuda, the feather mite species Euchineustathia tricapitosetosa, and the biting lice species Dennyus dubius. Its nest is known to host the Hemiptera species Cimexopsis nyctali, which is similar to the bedbug and can (on rare occasions) become a pest species in houses.
Severe storms, such as hurricanes, encountered during migration can seriously impact the Chimney's Swift's survival rates. Swifts caught up in 2005's Hurricane Wilma were swept as far north as Atlantic Canada and Western Europe. More than 700 were found dead. The following year, roost counts in the province of Quebec, Canada showed a decrease of 62 percent, and the overall population in the province was halved.
- By convention, length is measured from the tip of the bill to the tip of the tail on a dead bird (or skin) laid on its back.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Chaetura pelagica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106001758. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Cory, Charles B. (March 1918). Publication 197: Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. 13. Chicago, IL, USA: Field Museum of Natural History. p. 137. http://books.google.com/books?id=T2RMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA137.
- Stephens / Macquart; Dipt. exot., Suppl. 4, 271 (ex Mém. Soc. Sci. Lille, 1850 (1851), 244).
- Feduccia, Alan, ed. (1999). Catesby's Birds of Colonial America. Chapel Hill, NC, USA: University of North Carolina Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8078-4816-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=hVVNvPMBGEkC&pg=PA78.
- Audubon, John James (1840). The Birds of America, vol. 1. Philadelphia, PA, USA: J. B. Chevalier. p. 164. http://books.google.com/books?id=x1MDAAAAYAAJ&pg=164.
- Ridgway, Robert; Friedmann, Herbert (1901). The birds of North and Middle America. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Office. pp. 714–719. http://books.google.com/?id=WYgaAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA714.
- Clements, James F.; Diamond, Jared; White, Anthony W.; Fitzpatrick, John W. (2007). The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (6 ed.). Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
- Newton, Ian (2003). Speciation and Biogeography of Birds. London, UK: Academic Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-0-08-092499-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=HHzT7a8LzkgC&pg=PA296#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- Chantler (1999b), p. 443.
- Kyle & Kyle (2005), p. 15.
- Jobling, James A. (2010). Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, UK: Christopher Helm. p. 295. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
- Dunne, Pete (2003). Pete Dunne on Bird Watching: The How-to, Where-to, and When-to of Birding. New York, NY, USA: Houghton Mifflin. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-395-90686-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=WfxnqueHQmEC&pg=PA69.
- Fergus, Charles (2000). Wildlife of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. Mechanicsburg, PA, USA: Stackpole Books. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-8117-2899-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=T4gLRnplhVwC&pg=PA268.
- Cramp, Stanley, ed. (1977). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1, Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-857358-6.
- "Chimney Swift". All about birds. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/chimney_swift/lifehistory. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- Johnston, David W. (March-April 1958). "Sex and Age Characters and Salivary Glands of the Chimney Swift" (PDF). The Condor 60 (2): 73–84. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/condor/v060n02/p0073-p0084.pdf.
- Ridgely, Robert S.; Gwynne, John A. (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Panama: With Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-691-02512-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=H9INVOMUgOAC&pg=PA202.
- Chantler (1999a), p. 185.
- Barrows, Walter Bradford (1912). Michigan Bird Life. Lansing, MI, USA: MIchigan Agricultural College. p. 387. http://books.google.com/books?id=900OAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA387.
- Dunne, Pete (2006). Pete Dunne's Essential Field Companion. New York, NY, USA: Houghton, Mifflin. p. 351. ISBN 978-0-618-23648-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=xTXeu5fLBQUC&pg=PA351.
- Blanchan, Neltje (1903). Bird Neighbors. New York, NY, USA: Doubleday and McClure. p. 67. LCCN 04010747. http://books.google.com/books?id=nwM_bT2VdZkC&pg=PA67.
- Henderson, Carrol L.; Adams, Steve (2008). Birds in Flight: The Art and Science of How Birds Fly. Minneapolis, MN, USA: Voyageur Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-7603-3392-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=HN9zXugoKi4C&pg=PA89.
- Collins, Charles T. (2001). "Swifts". The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behaviour. London, UK: Christopher Helm. pp. 353–356. ISBN 978-0-7136-6250-4.
- Savile, D. B. O. (October 1950). "The Flight Mechanism of Swifts and Hummingbirds" (PDF). The Auk 67 (4): 499–504. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v067n04/p0499-p0504.pdf.
- Coues, Elliott (1872). Key to North American Birds. Salem, MA, USA: Naturalists' Agency. p. 45. LCCN 06017833. http://books.google.com/books?id=C1dSAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA45.
- Dunn, Jon L.; Alderfer, Johnathon, eds. (2006). National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America (5 ed.). Washington, DC, USA: National Geographic. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-7922-5314-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=gA-rfkTZi1YC&pg=PA270.
- Burton, Maurice; Burton, Robert, eds. (2002). "International Wildlife Encyclopedia". International Wildlife Encyclopedia (3 ed.). Tarrytown, NY, USA: Marshall Cavendish. p. 2484. ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=y9TsB3id66cC&pg=PA2484.
- Chantler (1999b), p. 391.
- Wood, Casey Albert (1917). The Fundus Oculi of Birds, Especially as Viewed by the Ophthalmoscope. Chicago, IL, USA: Lakeside Press. pp. 56–58. LCCN 17016887. http://books.google.com/books?id=5sMyAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA56.
- Chantler (1999a), p. 187.
- "Swifts". The Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 26. New York, NY, USA: Encyclopedia Americana Corporation. 1920. p. 133. http://books.google.com/books?id=UaUrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA133.
- Surface, H. A. (May 1905). "Family 21, Micropodidae: The Swifts". The Zoological Quarterly Bulletin 3 (1): 22.
- Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York, NY, USA: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-679-45122-8.
- Sibley, David (11 October 2010). "Identifying Chimney and Vaux's Swifts by wing shape". Sibley Guides. http://www.sibleyguides.com/2010/10/identifying-chimney-and-vauxs-swifts-by-wing-shape/. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- Kaufman, Kenn (2005). Kaufman Field Guide to Birds of North America. New York, NY, USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-618-57423-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=VEbX_iVqWrUC&pg=PA228.
- Edwards, Ernest Preston (1998). A Field Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Adjacent Areas: Belize, Guatemala and El Salvador. Austin, TX, USA: University of Texas Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-292-72092-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=uP2klKufrmIC&pg=PA70.
- "For Advance Release to the Sunday Papers of November 12, 1944". U.S. Department of the Interior Information Service. http://www.fws.gov/news/historic/1944/19441112.pdf. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Wilson, James D. (2001). Common Birds of North America: An Expanded Guidebook. Minocqua, WI, USA: Willow Creek Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-57223-301-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=93Rg7G4FGv4C&pg=PA65.
- Wauer, Roland H. (1999). Heralds of Spring in Texas. College Station, TX, USA: Texas A & M University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-89096-879-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=gNop2jEFXNUC&pg=PA141.
- Dexter, Ralph W.. "More concerning the thundering and clapping sounds of the Chimney Swift" (PDF). The Auk 63 (3): 439–440. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v063n03/p0439-p0440.pdf.
- Whitcomb, W. H.; Bhatkar, A.; Nickerson, J. C. (December 1973). "Predators of Solenopsis invicta Queens Prior to Successful Colony Establishment". Environmental Entomology 2 (6): 1101–1103. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/envent/1973/00000002/00000006/art00027.
- Webster, Francis Marion (27 February 1915). "Alfafa attacked by the clover root circulio". U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 649: 1–8. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=5B0oAAAAYAAJ.
- Woods, Gordon T. (October 1940). "Chimney Swifts Destroy Many Insects" (PDF). Bird Banding 11 (4): 173–174. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v011n04/p0173-p0174.pdf.
- Tiner, Tim. "Chimney Swift". Ontario Nature. http://onnaturemagazine.com/chimney-swift.html. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- George, William G. (January 1971). "Foliage-gleaning by Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica)" (PDF). The Auk 88 (1): 177. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v088n01/p0177-p0177.pdf.
- Crossley, Richard (2011). The Crossley ID Guide: Eastern Birds. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press. p. 322. ISBN 978-0-691-14778-9.
- Brown, Charles R. (Autumn 1980). "Chimney Swift Tries to Steal Prey from Purple Martin" (PDF). Journal of Field Ornithology 51 (4): 372–373. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v051n04/p0372-p0373.pdf.
- Cottam, Clarence (October 1932). "Nocturnal Habits of the Chimney Swift" (PDF). The Auk 49 (4): 479–481. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v049n04/p0479-p0481.pdf.
- Collins, Charles T.; Bull, Evelyn L.. "Seasonal Variation in Body Mass of Chimney and Vaux's Swifts" (PDF). North American Bird Bander 21 (4): 143–152. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/nabb/v021n04/p0143-p0152.pdf.
- Dexter, Ralph W. (April 1992). "Sociality of Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica) Nesting in a Colony" (PDF). North American Bird Bander 17 (2): 61–64. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/nabb/v017n02/p0061-p0064.pdf.
- "Chimney Swift". National Geographic Society. http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birding/chimney-swift/. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Hofslund, P. B. (June 1958). "Chimney Swift nesting in an abandoned Pileated Woodpecker hole" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin 70 (2): 192. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v070n02/p0192-p0192.pdf.
- Hyde, A. Sydney (January 1924). "Chimney Swift Nesting in a Cistern" (PDF). The Auk 41 (1): 157–158. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v041n01/p0157-p0158.pdf.
- Rogers, Charles H. (July 1917). "Chimney Swift Nesting in a Well" (PDF). The Auk 34 (3): 337. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v034n03/p0337-p0337.pdf.
- Baicich, Paul J.; Harrison, Colin J. O. (1977). Nests, Eggs, and Nestlings of North American Birds (2 ed.). Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-691-12295-3.
- Kyle & Kyle (2005), p. 38
- Kyle & Kyle (2005), p. 39
- Dexter, Ralph W. (July 1969). "Banding and Nesting Studies of the Chimney Swift, 1944–1968" (PDF). The Ohio Journal of Science 69 (4): 193–213. https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/5474/V69N04_193.pdf;jsessionid=2852377946EF7C7AC77B352498044AD0?sequence=1.
- "Longevity Records of North American Birds". U.S. Geological Survey. http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbl/longevity/Longevity_main.cfm. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Cink, Calvin L. (Summer 1990). "Snake Predation on Chimney Swift Nestlings" (PDF). Journal of Field Ornithology 61 (3): 288–289. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v061n03/p0288-p0289.pdf.
- Finnis, R. G. (January 1960). "Road Casualties Among Birds". Bird Study 7 (1): 21–32. doi:10.1080/00063656009475957.
- Hamann, C. B. (March 1940). "Notes on Aproctella nuda sp. nov. a Filarioid Nematode from the Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica (Linn.)". American Midland Naturalist 23 (2): 390–392. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2420671.
- Peterson, Paul; Atyeo, Warren T.; Moss, W. Vayne (1980). Feather Mite Family Eustathiidae (Aracina: Sarcoptiformes). Philadelphia, PA, USA: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. p. 32. ISSN 0096-7750. http://books.google.com/books?id=_J82_UPtb5oC&pg=PA32.
- Ewing, H. E. (1930). "The taxonomy and host relationships of the biting lice of the genera Dennyus and Eureum, including the descriptions of a new genus, subgenus and four species" (PDF). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 77 (2843): 1–16. http://biostor.org/cache/pdf/3a/33/64/3a3364ac1553c46d114f902d192ecc08.pdf.
- Boyd, Elizabeth M. (December 1951). "The External Parasites of Birds: A Review" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin 63 (4): 363–369. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v063n04/p0363-p0369.pdf.
- Kell, Stephen A.; Hahn, Jeff. "Prevention and control of bed bugs in residences". University of Minnesota Extension. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/housingandclothing/dk1022.html. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- Dionne, Mark; Maurice, Cėline; Gauthier, Jean; Shaffer, François (December 2008). "Impact of Hurricane Wilma on migrating birds: the case of the Chimney Swift". The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120 (4): 784–792. doi:10.1676/07-123.1.
- "Chimney Swifts: What's in my chimney". Maryland Department of Natural Resources. http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/Plants_Wildlife/chimneyswifts.asp. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Chantler, Phil (1999a). Swifts: A Guide to the Swifts and Treeswifts of the World (2 ed.). London, UK: Pica Press. ISBN 978-1-8734-0383-9.
- Chantler, Phil (1999b). "Family Apodidae (Swifts)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi. Handbook of Birds of the World, vol. 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. pp. 388–466. ISBN 978-84-87334-25-2.
- Kyle, Paul D.; Kyle, Georgean Z. (2005). Chimney Swifts: America's Mysterious Birds Above the Fireplace. College Station, TX, USA: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-58544-371-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=weGvxoqYgjgC.