The parasitic nematode Thelazia callipaeda infects the eyes of several vertebrate hosts including humans. This parasite requires a dipteran (fly) intermediate host, which also serves as a vector, delivering the parasite to the definitive vertebrate host (i.e., the host in a multi-host life cycle in within which reproduction occurs) when the fly lands around the vertebrate's eye and feeds on lachrymal secretions. (Neem 2011) See EOL Thelazia page for more details.
- Neem, S. 2011. Thelazia Species and Conjunctivitis Chapter 13. In: Conjunctivitis - A Complex and Multifaceted Disorder, Zdenek Pelikan (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-750-5, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/28335. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/conjunctivitis-a-complex-and-multifaceted-disorder/thelazia-species-and-conjunctivitis .
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