production is abundant on dwarfed and mature trees, but is rare or
absent on young vigorous trees . Staminate cones are usually first
produced when trees are 6 to 7 years old, but have developed on 1- and
2-year-old seedlings of Mendocino cypress and Gowen cypress (Cupressus
goveniana ssp. goveniana), respectively [8,27]. Ovulate cones are
produced on trees that are 4 years of age or older. The cones require 2
years to mature [1,27], and contain from 90 to 130 seeds [8,27]. The
cones of California cyress are closed; they persist on the tree until
opened by the heat of a fire or from desiccation due to age [8,26].
Seeds are shed gradually over several months after the cones open .
Detached cones will open, but they rarely result in seedling
establishment, usually due to lack of a suitable seedbed . Seed
dispersal is primarily by wind and rain .
Gowen cypress germination rates range from 23 to 53 percent . Seeds
require bare mineral soil for germination and establishment. Seedling
mortality is high on shaded sites with abundant litter because of
damping-off fungi [1,26]. Seedlings are sensitive to excessive moisture
- 1. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. 
- 8. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. 
- 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. 
- 26. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. 
- 27. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. 
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