Immediate Effect of Fire
Red spruce is easily killed by fire . Surface or ground fires that consume the litter and organic layers covering the superficial roots of red spruce are almost certain to severely injure the roots . Fire kills mature trees by exposing roots, subjecting the tree to water stress and/or windthrow, which may result in the eventual death of the tree [39,87].
- 39. Korstian, Clarence F. 1937. Perpetuation of spruce on cut-over and burned lands in the higher Southern Appalachian Mountains. Ecological Monographs. 7(1): 125-167. 
- 49. Little, Silas. 1974. Effects of fire on temperate forests: northeastern United States. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 225-250. 
- 87. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p.