Red spruce is a native, evergreen conifer. It is a medium-sized tree, attaining a maximum height of 115 feet (35 m); the average mature height is 60 to 75 feet (18-23 m). The ovulate cones are 1.3 to 1.5 inches (3-4 cm) long, with rigid rounded scales that are often slightly toothed on the edges. Red spruce is very shallow rooted; most of the feeding roots occur in the duff and top few centimeters of soil. In Maine, the average depth of roots was 13 inches (33 cm), with a maximum depth of 22 inches (56 cm) . Red spruce is long-lived, often achieving ages greater than 350 years .
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