Western Atlantic: South Carolina (USA), Bermuda, Bahamas, northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Lesser Antilles (Ref. 7251), and southern Brazil (Ref. 47377).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942