Idarnes is a genus of minute parasitic wasps associated with figs in the New World tropics (Walker 1843, Gordh 1975, Bronstein 1991, Boucek 1993, Herre et al. 1996, Elias et al. 2008). Like mutualistic agaonid fig wasps, Idarnes larvae develop inside fig inflorescences, but they do not provide pollination services to the fig. Since they compete with mutualistic wasps for resources Idarnes have a detrimental effect on the pollination success of their host (West & Herre 1994, West et al. 1996, Marussich & Machado 2007, Elias et al. 2012).
- Boucek, Z. 1993. The genera of chalcidoid wasps from Ficusfruit in the New World. Journal of Natural History 27:173–217.
- Bronstein, J. L. 1991. The nonpollinating wasp fauna of Ficus pertusa—exploitation of a mutualism. Oikos 61:175–186.
- Elias, L. G., A.O. Menezes Jr., and R.A.S. Pereira. 2008. Colonization sequence of non-pollinating fig wasps associated with Ficus citrifolia in Brazil. Symbiosis 45:107–111.
- Elias, L. G., S. P. Teixeira, F. Kjellberg, and R.A.S. Pereira. 2012. Diversification in the use of resources by Idarnes species: bypassing functional constraints in the fig–fig wasp interaction. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106(1):114–122.
- Gordh, G. 1975. The comparative external morphology and systematics of the Neotropical parasitic fig wasp Idarnes (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). University of Kansas. Science Bulletin. 50 (9):389-455.
- Herre, E. A., C. A. Machado, E. Bermingham, J. D. Nason, D. M. Windsor, S. S. McCafferty, W. van Houten and K. Bachmann. 1996. Molecular phylogenies of figs and their pollinator wasps. Journal of Biogeography 23:521–530.
- Marussich, W. A. and C. A. Machado. 2007. Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and nonpollinating New World fig wasps. Molecular Ecology 16:1925–1946.
- Walker, F. 1843. Descriptions of Chalcidites discovered in St. Vincent's Isle by the Rev. Lansdown Guilding. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 12:46-49.
- West, S. A. and E. A. Herre. 1994. The ecology of the New World fig-parasitizing wasps Idarnes and implications for the evolution of the fig-pollinator mutualism. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 258(1351):67-72. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1994.0143
- West, S. A. , E. A. Herre, D. M. Windsor, and P. R. S. Green. 1996. The ecology and evolution of the New World non-pollinating fig wasp communities. Journal of Biogeography 23:447–458.
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