Adult flower flies rely on their high-speed flight and their similarity to stinging insects to avoid or discourage many predators. Larvae hide in muck and mud, and some live only in small treeholes where there are not very many predators. The species that live in nests of ants and wasps have adjusted their scent so they don't smell like food, and they stay out of the way of the other insects as much as they can.
- Anura (eat adults)
- Testudines (eat aquatic larvae)
- Cyprinus carpio and Pimephales notatus (eat aquatic larvae)
- Araneae, especially flower spiders (eat adults)
- mantids (eat adults)
- water boatmen (eat aquatic larvae)
- Hymenoptera (eat larvae)
- Coccinellidae (eat eggs)
- Chrysopidae (eat eggs)
- Hirudinea (eat aquatic larvae)
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