Reaction to Competition
The tree is classed as intermediate in tolerance to shade, and seedlings become established under moderate shade. Lowland forests in which swamp white oak grows are characterized by instability and successional uncertainty because of the variable effects of flooding, together with the presence of saturated soils. Swamp white oak may achieve dominance on the better drained lowland soils together with basswood, northern red oak (Quercus rubra),
American beech (Fagus grandifolia),
and sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
(8). Once established, it is able to compete effectively with American elm, green ash, and black willow. Limited current evidence indicates clearcutting to be an adequate silvicultural system, particularly on the better sites (2,8).
In forest stands swamp white oak has a straight bole with ascending branches and a narrow crown. However, open-grown trees are generally poorly formed and often have persistent lower branches (4).
Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.