Germination is hypogeal (10). After acorns germinate in the fall, roots continue to develop until growth is limited by low temperatures. Seedling establishment and early growth seem to be favored on the better drained lowland soils rather than on sites that are poorly drained or subjected to persistent flooding. In any case, adequate moisture and light are necessary for successful early development (4,8).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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