Within the range of swamp white oak, mean annual temperatures vary from 16° C (60° F) in Arkansas to 4° C (40° F) in southern Ontario. Extremes in temperature vary from 41° C (105° F) to -34° C (-30° F). Average annual precipitation is from 640 mm (25 in) in southeast Minnesota to 1270 mm (50 in) in northeast Arkansas. The frost-free period ranges from 210 days in the southern part of the growing area to 120 days in the northern part (4).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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