Average mean daily temperatures range from 2° to 6° C (36° to 42° F) during January and 16° to 23° C (60° to 74° F) in July. The season free of killing frosts begins between March 8 and April 30 and ends between October 20 and November 20, varying in length between 160 and 249 days. Over a 30-year period the maximum temperature recorded at 183 in (600 ft) elevation in the center of tanoak's area of maximum development was 45° C (113° F).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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