Seed Production and Dissemination
Upon ripening, seeds are dispersed by gravity and by squirrels and other rodents. At this time, the seeds are dormant. Cold stratification for 90 to 120 days at temperatures of 20° to 30° C (68° to 86° F) overcomes dormancy.
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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