Seed Production and Dissemination
The seed is dispersed by wind up to 140 in (460 ft) from the parent tree. White ash seed has a very pronounced dormancy. Although the embryo is completely developed morphologically at the time of seedfall (September to December), the physiological state of the endosperm and embryo inhibit germination. Seeds must be stratified under moist conditions for 2 or 3 months before they will germinate, and the average laboratory germination is 54 percent. The minimum seed-bearing age is 20 years (14).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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