Soils and Topography
In Hawaii, the tree grows very well on Typic and Hydric Dystrandepts, soils of the latosolic brown forest great soil group. These soils are generally 0.9 in (3 ft) deep, acid in reaction, and formed on volcanic ash. In California, the tree grows well on a much wider range of soils than in Hawaii, from the Ultisols and Alfisols developed on deeply weathered sedimentary deposits and sandstone to Inceptisols and Aridisols developed on a wide variety of parent materials.
In Portugal, almost 15 percent of the land area is planted to this species. Most stands are on soils developed from sandstone and limestone, which have been badly degraded by cultivation since ancient times. Best yields occur on the heavy texture clay-loams and clays (11).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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