The species was introduced into California in 1856 (1) and into Hawaii about 1865 (18) and has become naturalized in both States. It is also fairly common as an ornamental in Arizona but is not naturalized there. In California, it is now primarily used in line plantings along roads and as windbreaks, but formerly, extensive plantations were established. Plantings total about 16 000 ha (40,000 acres) (17). The planted range in California extends from Humboldt County in the north to San Diego County in the south, with best growth in the coastal fog belt in the vicinity of San Francisco. Numerous plantings are seen in the Central Valley from Redding, south through Fresno to Bakersfield, and San Bernardino. Hawaii has about 5000 ha (12,000 acres)-almost all of them on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. In California and Hawaii the tree regenerates within and near the edges of plantations. In some areas of Hawaii it spreads fast enough to be considered a pest by ranchers.
Recently, the species has also been planted in its native Tasmania where it is an important pulpwood source (22).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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