Approximate site characteristics and seedling vigor determine seedling establishment. Germination is epigeal (14). Under optimum conditions seedlings can grow 0.3 m (1 ft) in height the first growing season. Continuous terminal growth is related to light intensity, photoperiod, and temperature (11). Once established, seedlings can endure much shading.
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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