Reaction to Competition
River birch is most commonly classed as intolerant of shade. This characteristic precludes uneven-aged management of the species, although no record has been found of commercial planting for wood production. Thick natural stands often stagnate at an early age; nearly 20,000 3-month-old seedlings were counted in a 3.3 m² (36 ft²) plot on a Mississippi River bottom in Wisconsin (7).
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