Reaction to Competition
River birch is most commonly classed as intolerant of shade. This characteristic precludes uneven-aged management of the species, although no record has been found of commercial planting for wood production. Thick natural stands often stagnate at an early age; nearly 20,000 3-month-old seedlings were counted in a 3.3 m² (36 ft²) plot on a Mississippi River bottom in Wisconsin (7).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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