With its geographic range encompassing almost the eastern half of the United States, river birch grows throughout a wide range of climate. It is most abundant in the hot, humid Southeast where the frost-free season averages from 210 to 270 days and annual rainfall averages about 1270 mm (50 in). At the northern extreme of its range in Minnesota and Wisconsin, annual precipitation averages less than 760 mm (30 in) and the frost-free season is 150 days or less (8).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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