Among insects most commonly attacking the vegetative portion of trees are pinyon pitch nodule moth (Petrova albicapitana arizonensis), tiger moth (Halisidota ingens), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), pinyon sawfly (Neodiprion edulicolus), adelgid (Pineus coloradensis), pinyon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus), pine needle scale (Chionaspis pinifoliae), Arizona fivespined ips (Ips lecontei), pinyon ips (Ips confusus), pinyon needle miner (Coleotechnites edulicola), pinyon tip moth (Dioryctria albovittella), and gallmidges (Pinyonia spp., Janetiella spp., and Contarinia spp.) (22,24,27,28,63,67). The most damaging cone and seed insects include cone moths (Eucosma bobana) and the pinyon cone beetle (Conophthorus edulis). Many species of nematodes, especially in the Helocotylenchus, Tylenchus, and Xiphinema genera, are parasitic on pinyon roots, but their effect on growth in natural stands is unknown (53).
A number of foliage diseases have been reported on pinyon, including needle casts (Elytroderma deformans and Bifusella saccata) and needle rusts (Coleosporium jonesii and C. crowellii) (36,67). Pinyon blister rust (Cronartium occidentale) and pinyon dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium divaricatum) cause stem diseases, the latter being considered the major pathogen of pinyon. Verticicladiella wagenerii, a root rot, is also ranked high as a damaging agent; principal heart rots are red-ring rot (Phellinus pini) and brown cubical rot (Fomitopsis pinicola). Armillaria mellea and Phaeolus schweinitzii are not particularly important diseases, but both cause root rot and butt rot.
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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