Spruce and fir are shallow-rooted, with most of the feeding roots in the duff and the top few centimeters of mineral soil (11). The average rooting depth for all sites in Maine was found to be 33 cm (13 in), with a maximum of 56 cm (22 in) (22).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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