Barton M. Blum
Red spruce (Picea rubens), also known as yellow spruce, West Virginia spruce, eastern spruce, and he-balsam, is one of the more important conifers in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. It is a medium-size tree that may grow to be more than 400 years old. The wood of red spruce is light in color and weight, straight grained, and resilient. It is used for making paper, for construction lumber, and for musical stringed instruments. Its many uses rival those of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) (21).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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