Although some black spruce roots may penetrate to 60 cm (24 in), most spread laterally at the moss-humus interface. The bulk of the root biomass is in the upper 20 cm (8 in) of the organic horizons. In areas with rapidly accumulating organic layers, several sets of progressively younger roots may develop adventitiously. These new roots may grow as fast as 1 m (3 ft) per year and as much as 4.6 m (15 ft) in 8 to 9 years (2).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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