Flowering and Fruiting
The flower buds formed by early August develop rapidly the following spring. Female flowers are receptive and pollen is shed in late May or early June in southern areas of the range and 1 to 2 weeks later in the north. The female conelets then develop rapidly, and at maturity the cones are 1 to 4 cm (0.4 to 1.6 in) long.
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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