Average annual temperatures vary from about 4° C (40° F) in the north to 20° C (68° F) in the southern part of the botanical range. Average annual maximum temperature ranges only from about 32° C (90° F) to 41° C (105° F), but average minimum temperature ranges from -43° C (-45° F) to -7° C (20° F). The growing season varies from about 120 to 250 days.
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm
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