The Gavar/Guar/Guwar/Guvar bean or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) is an annual legume and the source of guar gum. It grows best under conditions with frequent rainfall, but tolerates arid conditions well. About 80% of world production occurs in India and Pakistan, but, due to strong demand, the plant is being introduced into new areas. It is known as गवार् gawaar in Punjabi,Urdu, Hindi and Marathi, గోరు చిక్కుడు goruchikkudu kaya or gokarakaya in Telugu, ಗೋರಿಕಾಯಿ (gorikayi),ಜವಳಿಕಾಯಿ (javaLikaayi), ಚವಳಿಕಾಯಿ (chavalikayi) in Kannada, and kotthavarai (கொத்தவரைக்காய்) in Tamil.
Guar means "cow food" in Hindi and Urdu. For best growth, the guar bean requires full sunshine, flashing rainfalls that are moderately frequent, and well-drained soil. However, it is extremely drought-tolerant and thrives in semiarid regions. Too much precipitation can cause the plant to become more leafy, thereby reducing the number of pods and/or seeds per pod and affecting the size and yield of seeds. The crop is sown after the first rains in July and harvested in late October. It is grown principally in north-western India and Pakistan with smaller crops grown in the semiarid areas of the high plains of Texas in the USA, Australia and Africa. The most important growing area centres on Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India where demand for guar for fracking produced an agricultural boom as of 2012.
Currently, India and Pakistan are the main producers of cluster bean, accounting for 80% production of the world's total, while Thar, Punjab Dry Areas in Pakistan and Rajasthan occupies the largest area (82.1%) under guar cultivation in India. In addition to its cultivation in India and Pakistan, the crop is also grown as a cash crop in other parts of the world (Pathak et al. 2010). Several commercial growers have converted their crops to guar production to support the increasing demand for guar and other organic crops in the United States.
Varieties: Pusa Naubahar and Pusa Sadabahar. Seeds at the rate of 30 kilograms/hectare (9–11 lb/acre) are planted at a spacing of 45-60 x 20–30 cm (18–24 x 8–12 in) in February–March and June–July. During rainy season, the seeds are sown 2–3 cm (~1 in) deep on ridges and in furrows during summer months. FYM is applied at the rate of 25 tonnes/ha (11.1 tons/acre). N, P2O5 and K2O recommendation for the crop is 20:60:80 kg/ha (18:53:71 lb/acre). Average yield is 5 to 6 tonnes/ha (2.2–2.6 tons/acre). Meager information is available for genetic variability in clusterbean addressing the qualitative traits (Pathak et al. 2011)
Guar protein is not usable by humans unless toasted to destroy the trypsin inhibitor. Guar can be eaten as a green bean, but is more important as the source of guar gum. Guar beans have a large endosperm that contains galactomannan gum, a substance that forms a gel in water. This is commonly known as guar gum and is used in dairy products like ice cream and as a stabilizer in cheese and cold-meat processing.
Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is produced by the partial enzymatic hydrolysis of guaran, the galactomannan of the endosperm of guar seeds (guar gum). It is a neutral polysaccharide consisting of a mannose backbone chain with single galactose side units occurring on almost two out of every three mannose units. The average molecular weight is about 25,000 Daltons. This gives a PHGG that still assays and functions as a soluble dietary fiber. PHGG as sold commercially is completely soluble, acid and heat stable, unaffected by ions, and will not gel at high concentrations. Commercial PHGG is approximately 75% dietary fiber and has minimal effect on taste and texture in food and beverage items. PHGG is fully fermentable in the large bowel, with a high rate of volatile fatty acid formation. The pH of the feces is lowered along with an increase in fecal bulk that mainly consists of bacterial cell mass and water. Clinical studies have demonstrated a prebiotic effect of PHGG. Studies have also shown that PHGG can be used to maintain regularity. PHGG is used in foods for particulate suspension, emulsification, antistaling, ice crystal control, and reduced fat baked goods.
Serving Size: 1 Tbs(7g)
Servings Per Container: 64.00
Amount Per Serving % Daily Value Calories - 20.00 Calories from Fat - 0.00 Total Fat - 0.00 g Saturated Fat - 0.00 g Trans Fat - 0 g Cholesterol - 0.00 mg Sodium - 2.00 mg Total Carbohydrate - 6.00 g Dietary Fiber - 6.00 g Sugars - 0.00 g Protein - 0.00 g Vitamin A - 0.00% Vitamin C - 0.00% Calcium - 0.00% Iron - 1.00%
- Percent Daily Values (DV) are based on a 2000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Derivatives of guar gum that has been further reacted is also used in industrial applications, such as the paper and textile industry, ore flotation, the manufacture of explosives and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) of oil and gas formations. Guar gum is often crosslinked with boron or chromium ions to make it more stable and heat-resistant. The crosslinking of guar with metal ions results in a linear gel that does not block the formation and helps efficiently in formation cleaning process. The borate–guar reaction is reversible, and depends on the pH (hydrogen ion concentration) of the solution. Crosslinking of guar with borate occurs at high pH (approximately 9–10) of the solution. Guar gum has also proven a useful substitute for locust bean gum (made from carob seeds).
- "Guar Gum" - Agro Gums
- " Guar Gum". Midwest Herbs
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- Gardiner Harris (July 16, 2012). "In Tiny Bean, India’s Dirt-Poor Farmers Strike Gas-Drilling Gold". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/17/world/asia/fracking-in-us-lifts-guar-farmers-in-india.html. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Pathak, R., Singh, S.K., Singh, M. and Henry, A. 2010. Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) genotypes. Journal of Genetics 89:243-246.
- "large scale guar growers"
- "organic fertilizer crops"
- Pathak, R., Singh, M. and Henry, A. 2011. Genetic diversity and interrelationship among clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) for qualitative traits. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 81(5):402-406.
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