A medium-sized (13-16 inches) tern, the Common Tern in summer is most easily identified by its solid black cap, deeply-forked tail, black-tipped orange bill, and dark wing tips. In winter, this species becomes duller on the head and face, becoming dark-billed and pale headed while retaining conspicuous black eye-patches connected to a black hood. This species may be distinguished from the similarly-sized Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri) by that species’ pale wing tips and (in winter) white hood. Male and female Common Terns are similar to one another in all seasons. The Common Tern occurs across much of the world. In North America, this species breeds in a number of inland and coastal sites in the northeastern U.S.and southern Canada, wintering from the Gulf coast south to southern South America. In the Old World, this species breeds in the mid-latitudes throughout Europe, Asia, and North Africa, wintering in coastal Africa, South Asia, and Australasia. Common Terns primarily breed on rocky or sandy islands and beaches. In winter, this species may be found on beaches or, while feeding, in near-shore waters. Common Terns mainly eat small fish, but may eat small invertebrates, including insects and crustaceans, as they become available. Common Terns may be most easily seen standing or walking along the shore or on the beach, where their dark wing tips and (in summer) black-tipped orange bill may be most apparent. With the aid of binoculars, it may also be possible to observe this species feeding by diving headfirst into the water. Common Terns are most active during the day.
- Nisbet, Ian C. 2002. Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/618
- Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
- eBird Range Map - Common Tern. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ebird.org/ebird/map/comter.
- Sterna hirundo. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://xeno-canto.org/browse.php?query=Sterna+hirundo.
- Common Tern (Sterna hirundo). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ibc.lynxeds.com/species/common-tern-sterna-hirundo.
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