A medium-sized (8-9 inches) wader, the female Red Phalarope in summer is most easily identified by its reddish-brown breast, mottled black-and-white upperparts, yellow bill and legs, and black head with white cheek patches. Summer males are similar but paler, especially on the breast and face. This plumage pattern, in which the female is brighter than the male, is unusual in birds. Winter birds of both sexes are light gray above and white below with conspicuous dark gray eye-stripes. This species is unmistakable in summer; in winter, it may be separated from the related Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus) and Wilson’s Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor) by its lighter body as well as its shorter bill and legs. The Red Phalarope breeds along all coasts of the Arctic Ocean in North America and Eurasia. In winter, this species is found far offshore, mostly in tropical waters in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. This species migrates over water, but a few birds winter in waters near the United States, mostly off the coast of Florida, California, and Louisiana. Red Phalaropes breed in marshy portions of coastal tundra. In winter, this species is exclusively marine, being found in deep water far from shore. This species primarily eats insects during the breeding season, switching to an entirely plankton-based diet during the winter. Due to this species’ remote breeding and wintering grounds, Red Phalaropes are seen by relatively few birdwatchers. In summer, this species may be seen walking in shallow water while picking food off of vegetation or the surface of the water. In winter, Red Phalaropes may be seen in large flocks, swimming gull-like while picking plankton off the water’s surface. This species has been known to wait for large baleen whales to locate plankton before helping themselves to leftovers. Red Phalaropes are primarily active during the day.
- Tracy, Diane M., Douglas Schamel and James Dale. 2002. Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/698
- Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
- eBird Range Map - Red Phalarope. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ebird.org/ebird/map/redpha1.
- Phalaropus fulicarius. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://xeno-canto.org/browse.php?query=Phalaropus+fulicarius.
- Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicaria). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ibc.lynxeds.com/species/red-phalarope-phalaropus-fulicaria.
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