Smaller (6-7 inches) and darker than the Northern Oriole (Icterus galbula), the male Orchard Oriole is most easily identified by its black upper body, dark orange-brown underparts, and thin white wing bars. The female Orchard Oriole is mostly yellow-green overall with grayish wings with white wing bars. Immature Orchard Orioles resemble females, but young male birds have a solid black throat. The Orchard Oriole breeds widely across the eastern United States and southern Canada from Manitoba and New York south to central Florida and Texas. Smaller numbers breed in central Mexico and along the Mexican Gulf coast. In winter, Orchard Orioles migrate south to southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Orchard Orioles breed in open deciduous forest, usually near water. During the winter, this species inhabits similar kinds of habitat around humid tropical forests. Orchard Orioles primarily eat insects and other invertebrates, adding fruit to their diets when available, particularly in winter. In appropriate habitat, Orchard Orioles may be observed foraging for insects in the branches of trees, often in the tree canopy but sometimes quite close to the ground. This species occasionally visits oriole nectar feeders or hummingbird feeders. Orchard Orioles are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.
- Icterus spurius. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://xeno-canto.org/browse.php?query=Icterus+spurius.
- Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ibc.lynxeds.com/species/orchard-oriole-icterus-spurius.
- Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
- Scharf, William C. and Josef Kren. 2010. Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/255
- eBird Range Map - Orchard Oriole. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ebird.org/ebird/map/orcori.
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