A large (19-23 inches) tern, the Caspian Tern in summer is most easily identified by its gray-tipped wings, black cap, and large orange bill. In winter, the black in this species’ cap is replaced by mottled gray. Male and female Caspian Terns are similar to one another in all seasons. The Caspian Tern inhabits every continent except Antarctica. In North America, this species breeds locally in central Canada, the Great Lakes, along the Gulf coast of the United States, and along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the U.S.and Canada. In winter, Caspian Terns may be found in southern California, along the coast of the southeastern U.S., and further south into Mexico and Central America. In the Old World, this species breeds in Eurasia from Eastern Europe east to China, along the coasts of Africa and South Asia, and in Australasia, wintering widely in the tropics. Caspian Terns breed in a variety of habitats, including marshes, estuaries, barrier islands, bays, and lakes, and may be found either in freshwater or in saltwater. In winter, this species utilizes similar habitat types as in summer. Caspian Terns primarily eat fish and small crustaceans. Caspian Terns may be most easily seen standing or walking along the shore or on the beach, where their large size and bright orange bill are most apparent. With the aid of binoculars, it may also be possible to observe this species feeding by diving headfirst into the water. Caspian Terns are most active during the day.
- Cuthbert, Francesca J. and Linda R. Wires. 1999. Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/403
- Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
- eBird Range Map - Caspian Tern. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ebird.org/ebird/map/caster1.
- Sterna caspia. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://xeno-canto.org/browse.php?query=Sterna+caspia.
- Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ibc.lynxeds.com/species/caspian-tern-hydroprogne-caspia.
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