A relatively large (17-24 inches) hawk, the Red-shouldered Hawk takes its name from the large rust-colored shoulder patches visible from above or while perching. This species may also be identified by its brown back, barred white-and-black wings, and broad black tail banded with white. A pale form, with washed-out plumage on the chest, back, and head, occurs in south Florida. Like most species of raptors, females are larger than males. The Red-shouldered Hawk primarily breeds in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, withdrawing from northern portions of its range and expanding south into northern Mexico in winter. Unusually for a North American hawk, the Red-shouldered Hawk has another population, separated from the main population by thousands of miles, that is a permanent resident along the Pacific coast of California. Eastern Red-Shouldered Hawks inhabit mature forests with deciduous or mixed deciduous and evergreen trees. Western populations also inhabit these habitat types, but are also likely to be found in human-altered environments near woods. Red-shouldered Hawks primarily eat small vertebrates, including small mammals, amphibians, and occasionally small songbirds and doves. Red-shouldered Hawks may be most easily observed while hunting, when they drop down from high perches to capture terrestrial prey with their talons. This species may also be observed perching, although this hawk’s coloration and the dense vegetation of its preferred habitat help to provide camouflage. Red-shouldered Hawks are most active during the day.
- Dykstra, Cheryl R., Jeffrey L. Hays and Scott T. Crocoll. 2008. Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/107
- Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
- eBird Range Map - Red-shouldered Hawk. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ebird.org/ebird/map/reshaw.
- Buteo lineatus. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://xeno-canto.org/browse.php?query=Buteo+lineatus.
- Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. http://ibc.lynxeds.com/species/red-shouldered-hawk-buteo-lineatus.
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