The Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu (Uraeginthus bengalus) is a small passerine bird. This estrildid finch is a resident breeding bird in drier regions of tropical sub-Saharan Africa. Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu has an estimated global extent of occurrence of 7,700,000 km².
When he first described the Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu in his 1766 edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus assigned it to the genus Fringilla. It was later moved to the genus Uraeginthus, along with the rest of the cordon-bleus and grenadiers. The Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu, the Blue-capped Cordon-bleu, and the Blue Waxbill—form a species group within the genus. Further, the Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu may form a superspecies with the Blue Waxbill, with which it shares similar habitats.
There are four subspecies, which differ primarily in the amount of blue on the face and underparts of the females.
- U. b. bengalus
- U. b. brunneigularis
- U. b. littoralis
- U. b. ugogoensis
Like other members of its genus, the Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu is a very small finch, measuring only 12.5–13 cm (4.9–5.1 in) in length. It weighs 9.9 g (0.35 oz) on average, with known extremes in wild populations ranging from 8.9–11 g (0.31–0.39 oz). The adult male has uniformly brown upperparts, pale blue breast, flanks and tail and a yellow belly. There is a red patch on each cheek. Females are similar but duller, and lack the cheek spot. Immature birds are like the female, but with blue restricted to the face and throat.
Its contact call is a thin, high-pitched piping, often repeated, and variously transcribed as siii siii or tsee tsee. The song is more complex, consisting of 4–6 high-pitched notes, the last of which is longer, lower and more burry. Described as "rhythmic but lazy", it has been transcribed as wit-sit-diddley-diddley-ee-ee. Unlike many other passerines, but like all cordon-bleu species, female Red-cheeked Cordon-bleus sing; they also help to defend a small area around their nest site. Their song is less complex than that of the males, and they sing less frequently. Female song peaks primarily before egg-laying, and is thought to help with pair bond maintenance or breeding synchronization.
Habitat and range
The Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu is common and widespread across much of central and eastern Africa. Its range stretches from the West African countries of Senegal, Gambia and southwestern Mauritania east through southern Mali, southern Niger, southern Chad and southern Sudan to Ethiopia and northwestern and southwestern Somalia, and then south to southern Democratic Republic of the Congo, eastern Angola, northern and western Zambia, southern Tanzania and northern Mozambique. It has also been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Oahu. It has been found one time (in 1924) on Cape Verde and was recorded in the Maadi area in northern Egypt during the mid-1960s; the latter birds may have been escaped cage birds, as there have been no records since.
The Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu is a granivore, feeding principally on grass seeds, but also on millet and other small seeds. It is also known to feed sporadically on beeswax. Larger granivores, such as the Pin-tailed Whydah will chase cordon-bleus from food sources, limiting the feeding opportunities of the smaller birds and affecting their foraging success.
The Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu is reported to be "among the most popular exotic finches". While it has no special housing requirements, its habit of roosting on open branches (rather than in a nest or other protected area) makes it sensitive to low temperatures. During the breeding season, captive males become very aggressive towards each other, and birds disturbed during incubation will typically leave the nest.
Niagara Falls Aviary, Canada
- BirdLife International (2012). "Uraeginthus bengalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106008640. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Clement, Harris & Davis, p. 362.
- Clement, Harris & Davis, p. 361.
- Lewis, Adrian; Pomeroy, Derek E. (1989). A Bird Atlas of Kenya. Rotterdam, Netherlands: CRC Press. pp. 543–544. ISBN 978-90-6191-716-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=wUmBFtsbnKEC&pg=543.
- Stevenson, Terry; Fanshawe, John (2004). Birds of East Africa. A & C Black. p. 548. ISBN 0-7136=7347-0.
- Dunning, Jr., John Barnard, ed. (2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2 ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 506. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.
- Barlow, Clive; Wacher, Tim (1997). A Field Guide to the Birds of The Gambia. Pica Press. pp. 372–373. ISBN 1-873403-21-1.
- Marler, Peter; Slabbekoorn, Hans William (2004). Nature's Music: The Science of Birdsong, volume 1. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 0-12-473070-1.
- Sibley, Charles G.; Monroe, Burt Leavelle (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 692. ISBN 978-0-300-04969-5.
- Cramp, Stanley, ed. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, volume VIII: Crows to Finches. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 420. ISBN 978-0-19-854679-5.
- Ash, J. S.; Atkins, John D.; Ash, Caroline P. (2009). Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea: An Atlas of Distribution. London, UK: Christopher Helm. p. 349. ISBN 978-1-4081-0979-3.
- Horne, Jennifer F. M.; Short, Lester L. (June 1990). "Wax-eating by African Common Bulbuls" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin 102 (2): 339–341. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v102n02/p0339-p0341.pdf.
- Savalli, Udo M. (1990). "Interspecific aggression for food by a granivorous bird" (PDF). The Condor 92: 1082–1084. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v092n04/p1082-p1084.pdf.
- Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V, Gomez-Prieto P, Reguera R, Parga-Lozano C, Serrano-Vela I (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study". The Open Ornithology Journal 2: 29–36. doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029. http://chopo.pntic.mec.es/biolmol/publicaciones/Estrildinae_finches_2009.pdf.
- Koepff, Christa; Romangnano, April (2001). The Finch Handbook. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 0-7641-1826-9.
Clement, Peter; Harris, Alan; Davis, John (1993). Finches and Sparrows: An Identification Guide. London, UK: Christopher Helm. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-7146-8017-2|0-7146-8017-2]].