Recent mophological (Yoshizawa & Johnson 2006) and molecular evidence (Johnson et al. 2004) has shown that the parasitic lice (Phthiraptera) evolved from within the psocopteran suborder Troctomorpha. In modern systematics, Psocoptera and Phthiraptera are therefore treated together in the order Psocodea (Bess et al. 2006).
- Bess, Emilie, Vince Smith, Charles Lienhard, and Kevin P. Johnson (2006) Psocodea. Parasitic Lice (=Phthiraptera), Book Lice, and Bark Lice. Version 08 October 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Psocodea/8235/2006.10.08 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
- Johnson, K. P., Yoshizawa, K. and V. S. Smith (2004) Multiple origins of parasitism in lice. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 271: 1771-1776.
- Yoshizawa, K. and K. P. Johnson (2006). Morphology of male genitalia in lice and their relatives and phylogenetic implications. Systematic Entomology 31: 350-361.
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