|This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (June 2012)|
The Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) is a type of swift; sometimes referred to as American Swift or (incorrectly) Chimney Swallow. It commonly nests in chimneys in eastern North America, and migrates in large flocks to northwestern South America for the winter.
Taxonomy and systematics
When he first described the Chimney Swift in 1758, Carl Linnaeus named it Hirundo pelagica, lumping it with the swallows. In 1825, James Francis Stephens moved this and other small, short-tailed New World swifts to the genus Chaetura, where it has since remained, although other authorities in the 1800s at times assigned it to a variety of now obsolete genera. It has no subspecies.
This is a small swift, with a length of 12 to 15 cm (4.7 to 5.9 in) and a wingspan of 27 to 30 cm (11 to 12 in). In flight, this bird this species is often described as resembling a flying cigar due to its cylindrical body shape. It has long slender curved wings, with a wing chord length of 12.2 to 13.3 cm (4.8 to 5.2 in). The plumage is a sooty grey-brown; the throat, breast, underwings and rump are paler. They have short tails of 3.9 to 4.6 cm (1.5 to 1.8 in) in length. Chimney Swifts also have the shortest legs of any bird native to Ontario, with a tarsus length of 1.1 cm (0.43 in). Their bills are also extremely short, with a culmen of 0.5 cm (0.20 in). Weight can vary from 17 to 30 g (0.60 to 1.1 oz), with an average mass of 21.3 g (0.75 oz).
The Chimney Swift looks very much like the closely related Vaux's Swift, but is slightly larger, with relatively longer wings and tail, slower wingbeats and a greater tendency to soar. It tends to be darker on the breast and rump than the Vaux's Swift, though there is some overlap in plumage coloring. It is smaller, paler and shorter tailed than the Black Swift.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2011)|
It is a long distance migrant and winters in northeastern South America. The full population migrates seasonally in large flocks, but in mild winters some may overwinter in Florida. This species has occurred as a very rare vagrant to western Europe, Great Britain or Pribilof Island, Alaska. The gregarious nature of this species is reflected in that two individuals of this species turned up together on the Isles of Scilly.
The breeding season of Chimney Swifts is from May through July. Their breeding habitat is near towns and cities across eastern North America. Originally, these birds nested in large hollow trees, but now they mainly nest in man-made structures such as large open chimneys. The nest is made of twigs glued together with saliva and placed in a shaded location.
The female typically lays 4–5 eggs, though clutch sizes range from 3 to 6. The eggs, which are long and elliptical in shape, are moderately glossy, smooth and white, and measure 20 mm × 13 mm (0.79 in × 0.51 in). They are incubated by both parents, and hatch after 19 days. Baby Chimney Swifts are altricial—naked, blind and helpless when they hatch. Fledglings leave the nest after a month. Chimney Swifts can nest more than once in a season. While Chimney swifts will roost together in large numbers, it is rare to find more than one nest per chimney. Nesting sites are normally small chimneys but nests are also built in large communal roosts. It is suspected that fledged young are often fed by their parents while the young roost together in large communal roosts.
Like all swifts, the Chimney Swift forages on the wing, feeding on flying insects. It is an important predator of pest species such as the red imported fire ant and the clover root curculio. They usually feed in groups, flying closely together and making a high-pitched chipping noise. Their flight is distinctive: they make rapid angular turns unlike most other birds.
The Chimney Swift has a twittering call, consisting of a rapid series of hard, high-pitched chips. It sometimes gives single chips.
Conservation status and threats
Their population may have increased historically with the introduction of large chimneys as nesting locations. With suitable man-made habitat becoming less common, their numbers are declining in some areas. They were listed as Threatened by COSEWIC for several years with a likely listing of the species on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act.
The Chimney Swift carries a number of internal and external parasites. It is the type host for the nematode species Aproctella nuda and the biting lice species Dennyus dubius. Its nest is known to host the Hemiptera species Cimexopsis nyctali, which is similar to the bedbug, and can (on rare occasions) become a pest species in houses.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Chaetura pelagica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106001758. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Cory, Charles B. (March 1918). Publication 197: Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. 13. Chicago, IL, USA: Field Museum of Natural History. p. 137. http://books.google.com/books?id=T2RMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA137.
- Stephens / Macquart; Dipt. exot., Suppl. 4, 271 (ex Mém. Soc. Sci. Lille, 1850 (1851), 244).
- Audubon, John James (1833). The Birds of America. London. "American Swift (Plate CLVIII)"
- "Family v. Cypselinae. Swifts. Genus I. choetura, Stephens. Spinetail.". http://web4.audubon.org/bird/BOA/F5_G1a.html. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Widmann, Otto (1921). Transactions of the Academy of Science of Saint Louis, Volume 24. p. 49.
- Ridgway, Robert; Friedmann, Herbert (1901). The birds of North and Middle America. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Office. pp. 714–719. http://books.google.com/?id=WYgaAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA714.
- Clements, James F.; Diamond, Jared; White, Anthony W.; Fitzpatrick, John W. (2007). The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (6 ed.). Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
- "Chimney Swift". All about birds. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/chimney_swift/lifehistory.
- Chantler and Driessens, Swifts ISBN 1-873403-83-6.
- Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York, NY, USA: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 290. ISBN 0-679-45122-6.
- Dunn, Jon L.; Alderfer, Johnathon, eds. (2006). National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America (5 ed.). Washington, DC, USA: National Geographic. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-7922-5314-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=gA-rfkTZi1YC&pg=PA270.
- Mayntz, Melissa. "Chimney Swift Range Map". Birding / Wild Birds. About.com. http://birding.about.com/od/Bird-Maps/ss/Chimney-Swift-Range-Map.htm. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Robinson, R.A.. "BirdFacts: profiles of birds occurring in Britain & Ireland". BTO Research Report 407. British Trust for Ornithology. http://blx1.bto.org/birdfacts/results/bob7900.htm#records. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica". National Geographic Society. http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birding/chimney-swift/. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Dexter, Ralph W.. "Sociality of Chimney Swifts (Chaetura pelagica) Nesting in a Colony". North American Bird Bander 17 (2): 61–64. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/NABB/v017n02/p0061-p0064.pdf.
- Baicich, Paul J.; Harrison, Colin J. O. (1977). Nests, Eggs, and Nestlings of North American Birds (2 ed.). Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press. p. 195. ISBN 0-691-12295-4.
- Whitcomb, W. H.; Bhatkar, A.; Nickerson, J. C. (December 1973). "Predators of Solenopsis invicta Queens Prior to Successful Colony Establishment". Environmental Entomology 2 (6): 1101–1103. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/envent/1973/00000002/00000006/art00027.
- Webster, Francis Marion. "Alfafa attacked by the clover root circulio". U. S. Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 649: 1–8. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=5B0oAAAAYAAJ.
- Cink, Calvin L. (Summer 1990). "Snake Predation on Chimney Swift Nestlings". Journal of Field Ornithology 61 (3): 288–289. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/JFO/v061n03/p0288-p0289.pdf.
- Hamann, C. B. (March 1940). "Notes on Aproctella nuda sp. nov. a Filarioid Nematode from the Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica (Linn.)". American Midland Naturalist 23 (2): 390–392. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2420671.
- Ewing, H. E. (1930). "The taxonomy and host relationships of the biting lice of the genera Dennyus and Eureum, including the descriptions of a new genus, subgenus and four species" (PDF). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 77 (2843): 1–16. http://biostor.org/cache/pdf/3a/33/64/3a3364ac1553c46d114f902d192ecc08.pdf.
- Boyd, Elizabeth M. (December 1951). "The External Parasites of Birds: A Review" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin 63 (4): 363–369. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v063n04/p0363-p0369.pdf.
- Kell, Stephen A.; Hahn, Jeff. "Prevention and control of bed bugs in residences". University of Minnesota Extension. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/housingandclothing/dk1022.html. Retrieved 27 September 2012.