The epigean form defend small territories of ten to twenty centimeters diameter depending on body size. Tools for defence include fin-spreading, snake-swimming and ramming (Ref. 52944).
- Castro, R.M.C. and L. Casatti 1997 The fish fauna from a small forest stream of the Upper Parana River Basin, southern Brazil. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7(3/4):337-352. (Ref. 26681) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=26681&speccode=4475