Occurs on continental and insular shelves and oceanic waters adjacent to them (Ref. 244). Common on coral reefs, often in deeper areas near drop-offs to the open sea, in atoll passes, and in shallow lagoons adjacent to areas of strong currents (Ref. 244). Coastal-pelagic near the bottom, near drop-offs at 1-275 m (Ref. 58302). Forms daytime schools or aggregations in favored areas (Ref. 244). Although active during the day, it is more active nocturnally (Ref. 244). Viviparous, with 1-6 pups (Ref. 37816). Feeds on reef fishes, squids, octopi, crabs, lobsters and shrimps (Ref. 244, 5578). Tends to be aggressive under baited conditions (Ref. 6871) and readily enters into a frenzy feeding pattern, at which time it may become quite dangerous. Repeatedly incriminated in human attacks. Utilized for human consumption, fishmeal, and other shark products. Minimum depth from Ref. 6871. Maximum length of female taken from Ref. 5213.