Pinaceae -- Pine Family
Stephen F. Arno and Raymond J. Hoff
Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) is a slow-growing, long-lived tree of the high mountains of southwestern Canada and western United States. It is of limited commercial use, but it is valued for watershed protection and esthetics. Its seeds are an important food for grizzly bears and other wildlife of the high mountains. Concern about the species has arisen because in some areas whitebark pine cone crops have diminished as a result of successional replacement and insect and disease epidemics (6,48).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm