The wood of red spruce, white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce cannot be distinguished with certainty by either gross characteristics or minute anatomy, and all three are usually marketed simply as eastern spruce. Chief uses are for lumber and pulpwood, with limited amounts going into poles piling, boatbuilding stock, and cooperage stock (36) Flakeboard and plywood have been made from spruce in recent years. It is also the preferred wood for piano sounding boards, guitars, mandolins, organ pipes, and violin bellies (21).
Forest cover types that include red spruce support a wide variety of wildlife. They are particularly important as winter cover for deer and, to a certain extent, moose. Small game includes ruffed grouse, snowshoe hare, and woodcock. Many song birds and fur bearers also frequent these forest types (44).
A unique use of red spruce was spruce gum, an exudate that accumulates on trunk wounds. This was the raw material for a flourishing chewing-gum industry in Maine during the last half of the 19th century and early years of this century (21).
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm