Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Ripe females occurring mostly in the winter and deposit 20 to 62 egg-cases per year depending on size (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Y oung may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
- Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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