Common in the Gulf of California. Occasionally encountered in isolated reefs and sandy bottoms near the coast at depths of 46 to 90 m.
- Craig, M.T. and P.A. Hastings 2007 A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with revised classification of the epinephelini. Ichthyol. Res. 54:1-17. (Ref. 83414) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=83414&speccode=1205
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