Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Spawns throughout the year with maximum number of egg-cases laid in late spring and summer, embryos developing in about 4 months (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
- Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=205&speccode=1256
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