Found in shelf and slope waters, depending on seasonal lower bottom water temperatures. Feeds on crustaceans and bony fishes (Ref. 3167). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
- McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn 1998 Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
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