Northwest Pacific: China and Japan (Sagami Sea) (Ref. 4537). Reported from Korea (Ref. 12218). Pearl River and Chinese sea (Ref. 42845). Endangered (Ref. 6866). International trade restricted (CITES II, since 1.4.98; CMS Appendix II).
- Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
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