Found in the sublittoral zone (Ref. 11230), under ledges and caves of rocky reefs (Ref. 9710). Forms schools (Ref. 6620). Adults are found between 20 and 200 m depth, juveniles occasionally in shallower water (Ref. 9650). Regularly displayed in public aquaria.
- Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
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