Found mostly in estuaries and lagoons, and sometimes up rivers in nearly fresh waters. Occurs in the lower parts of rivers in freshwater or brackish water and in coastal seas (Ref. 12693, 48635). Juveniles may occur in dense aggregations (Ref. 9801). Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. Marketed mostly fresh. Spines associated with anterior fins have potent venom.
- Gomon, J.R. 1984 Plotosidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 5754) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5754&speccode=8167
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