Occur in clear lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic over coral, rock and rubble (Ref. 58302). Feed mainly on benthic animals. Juveniles and adults sometimes act as cleaners (Ref. 9710). Spawning occur either in aggregations by fish in the initial color phase or in pairs, typically with the terminal male being much larger than the female.
- Randall, J.E. 1985 Guide to Hawaiian reef fishes. Harrowood Books, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. 74 p. (Ref. 3921)
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